L.I. Indian Prehistory & History

Long Island Indian Prehistory and History       

          See also  Classic L.I. Histories and Document Collections  web page
          See also  Long Island History web page; e.g., under  Archeology; and Names, Geographic
          See also  L.I. - History Colonial Period, Ca. 1600-1775  web page
          See also  Montaukett Indian Nation
          See also  
Shinnecock Indian Nation  (Facebook)
          See also  Unkechaug Indian Nation  (Facebook)
          See also  Harry B. Wallace, Chief, Unkechaug Nation, Suffolk County, NY

--  General
             See also  Museums  (below)

---  PML Catalog Sampler:

---  Vertical File Sampler:

  • Weigand, Philip C.  "How Advanced were Long Island's Native Americans?:  A Challenge to the Traditional View."  Long Island Historical Journal, 17(1-2) Fall 2004/Spring 2005:  pp. 101-118.
  • Witek, John Charles.  "Bibles and Muskets:  The Acculturation of East End Native Americans in the Eighteenth Century.  Long Island Historical Journal, 6(2) Spring 1994:  208-222.  
  • Abrams, Arnold.  "Long Island's Invisible Indians:  Thirteen Tribes have Dwindled to Two.  Shoring Up Their Own Traditions, They Keep Their Problems to Themselves."  (On Long Island's Reservations).  Newsday, Part 2, July 14, 1984:  pp. A1-3.
  • Hevesi, Dennis.  "The Natives of this Island Eden Became Peaceful Giants."  Newsday, June 19, 1983:  p. G4.
  • Carter, Sylvia.  "Harvesting the Many Edibles of Our Wild."  Newsday, October 24, 1979:  p. A8.

--  Archaeology

  • "Native Skeletal Finds on Shelter Island Dated."  Suffolk County Archaeological Association Newsletter,  Winter 2004:  [n.p.],
  • Lefer, David.  "Old Bones May Not Rest in Montauk."  Newsday, June 24, 1995:  [n.p.].
  • MacDonald, John.  Inside Long Island:  Archaeological Dig:  From 2000 Years Ago, Lost Tribe, Buried Civilization."  Newsday, February 6, 1994:  p. 8.
  • Scovel, Jim.  "Valuable, Elusive Traces of the Island's 13 Tribes."  Newsday, June 8, 1990:  3, 23.  -- Still perpetrating myth of 13 tribes in 1990
  • Wick, Steve.  "Shinnecock Discovery:  Remains of Village, Fort May Be 1,000 Years Old."  Newsday, June 8, 1990:  3, 23.
  • Peddie, Sandra.  "New Digs Show Ancient LI."   (Part II) Newsday, February 3, 1986:  pp. 4-5.
  • Ottusch-Kianka, Donna I.  "Muttontown Preserve and NCM #229:  A Tale of Two Inland Sites."  Suffolk County Archaeological Association. Newsletter, Fall 1985:  pp. 69.
  • Aug, Daniel H.  "Archeologists Really Dig Find on Middle Island Site."  Suffolk Life, August 14, 1985:  [n.p.].
  • Mikorenda, Jerry.  "Indian Data at Development?" (LI) New York Times, May 5, 1985: pp. 8-9.  -- Fort Salonga 
  • Peddie, Sandra.  "Experts Find Evidence of Ancient LI Village."  Newsday, November 6, 1985:  p. 6. -- 1st evidence of entire intact village (Middle Island, NY)
  • Gwynne, Grechen.  "New Evidence on Indians."  The Suffolk Historian, v. 9 (1984).  1 p.
  • Wacker, Bob.  "Site of an Indian Fort Studied."  New York Times, May 27, 1984:  [n.p.].  -- Fort Corchaugue (Cutchogue, NY)
  • "Archaeologists Investigate Mashomack."  Mashomack Preserve Newsletter, Fall-Winter 1983:  pp. 1-2.
  • Delatiner, Barbara.  "Tracing L.I. Life 3,000 Years Ago."  New York Times, August 21, 1983:  pp. 1, 16.
  • Ellison, David.  "Southold's New Residents Mor than 500 Years Old."  Long Island Heritage, October 1982:  p. 41.
  • Breslin, Rosemary.  "Indian Bones Go Back on View."  (Long Island Journal)  New York Times, September 19, 1982:  p. 3. 
  • Culbertson, Judi.  "Tracing L.I. Life 3,000 Years Ago."  (Long Island Weekly) New York Times, September 13, 1981:  pp. 1, 4.
  • Wacker, Bob.  "Underwater Dig for Indian Kitchens."  Newsday, March 2, 1980:  p. 25.-- 3000 year old kitchens, in Flanders Bay
  • Hevesi, Dennis,  "When Indians Lived in Queens."  Newsday, August 10, 1977:  pp. 4A-5A.
  • Paltrow, Scot.  "That's the Way It Was:  LI in 2000 BC."  Newsday, July 9, 1976:  p. 17.
  • Salant, Jonathan.  "Digging for a Lifestyle." Newsday, August 17, 1975:  p. 21.
  • Freedman, Mitchell.  "Archeologists Bemoan Loss of Sites on LI."  Newsday, February 28, 1975:  p. 19. -- bulldozers and pot hunters and settlements obscured
  • Jacobsen, Aileen.  "Skeleton Adds Pieces on LI's Past."  Newsday, October 8, 1974:  [n.p.].  -- Mill Neck Creek, Bayville
  • Kaufman, Bill.  "Archaeologically, It's a Model Site."  Newsday, December 8, 1973:  pp. 3A-
  • Werner, Ben, Jr.  The Indians of Long Island, New York and Coastal Connecticut.  Port Jefferson, NY:  Yorkshire Publishing Co., 1973.
  • Nassau County Museum of Natural History.  The Indian Archaeology of Long Island (Educational Leaflet 17).  [s.l.:  The Museum, [ca. 1970].
  • Ykloc, Beck K.Q.  "2 Skeletons Found:  Bones Could Be Indians.'"  Suffolk Sun, October 18, 1968:  [n.p.].   -- Northport, 1000 years ago
  • Bowler, Michael and Byron Porterfield.  "Teacher Finds 6 Old Skeletons."  Suffolk Sun, December 15, 1967:  1A, 2A.  -- Strongs Neck, Setauket, NY
  • "Digs Up Implements which may Ante-date Indians, at Holbrook."  The Argus, August 20, 1940:  [n.p.].
  • Beauchamp, William Martin.  "Suffolk County."  In  Aboriginal Occupation of New York.  Bulletin of the  New York State Museum, 32(7) February 1900:  pp. 148-150.  (Internet Archive)
  • Fullam, Anne and Mitchell Freedman.  "Spirit of the Agreement:  Tribe to Oversee Digging at Site of Possible Ancient Village."  [Newsday?, n.d.:  pp. [?], 27. 
  • Martin, Robert B.  "Outline Forgotten Village."  [Newsday?], [n.d.]:  pp. 1, 6.
  • Saslow, Linda.  "Greenlawn Housing on Indian Settlement."  (LI) New York Times, [?] 1991:  p. 8.
  • "Town OK's Archeological Dig iat MI."  [Newsday?, n.d.:  n.p.]  -- Middle Island
  • Virag, Irene.  "From the Ice, Tales of a Lake."  (Long Island Diary) [Newsday?], n.d.:  pp. 27, 30.  -- Lake Ronkonkoma
  • Werner, Ben, Jr.  Indian Archaeology of Long Island.  Stony Brook, NY:  The Suffolk Museum, [n.d.].
  • Wetzel, Debra.  "Loss of L.I. Indian Relics Feared."  New York Times, May 18, 1986:  [n.p.].

--  Architecture

--  Biography

--  Burial Grounds

  • Wick, Steve.  "Preservation Sought for Burial Ground." Newsday, July 14, 1988:  p. 31.
  • Gatewood, Dallas.  "Land Sale to Preserve Indian Burial Ground."  Newsday, November 23, 1983:  p. S25.
  • Levine, Gaynell Stone.  "Rites and Customs:  Mourning and Burial Customs."  In Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians (Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, v. 4.).  Stony Brook, NY; Lexington, MA:  Published for the Suffolk County Archaeology Association; by Ginn Publishing Co., 1980:  pp. 296-300.
  • Ritchie, William A.  "Orient Focus, ? Aspect, ? Phase, ? Patterns: The Pre-Iroquoian Occupations of New York State" (Rochester Museum Memoir, No. 1).  Rochester, NY:  Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1944:  pp. 227-233. 

--  Cultural & Religious Aspects
---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • Strong, John A.  "The Algonquian Belief System."  In The Algonquian Peoples of Long Island, From Earliest Times to 1700.  Hempstead, NY; Interlaken, NY:  Published for Hofstra University.  Long Island Studies Institute; by Empire State Books, 1997:  pp. 109-141.
  • Strong, John A.  "The Reaffirmation of Tradition Among the Native Americans of Eastern Long Island."  Long Island Historical Journal, 7(1) Fall 1994:  pp. 42-67.
  • Golder, William E.  Long Island's First Inhabitants:  A Summary of Algonquin Culture and the Ice Age to Colonial Times.  Southold, NY:  New York State Archaeological Association.  Long Island Chapter, Inc., 1981.  [40 p.].  
  • Levine, Gaynell Stone.  "Rites and Customs:  Visual Expression of Beliefs."  In Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians (Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, v. 4.).  Stony Brook, NY; Lexington, MA:  Published for the Suffolk County Archaeology Association; by Ginn Publishing Co., 1980:  pp. 301-307.
  • Feder, Norman.  Long Island Indian Culture  (Denver Art Museum.  Department of Indian Art, Leaflet No. 50 June, 1932, repr. Nov. 1968)  -- 1 folded sheet (4 p.)

--  Deeds

-- Endangered Places

--  Fishers Island, N.Y.
---  PML Catalog Sampler:

--  Forts / Ceremonial Centers 
--- PML Catalog Sampler:

---  PML Vertical File Sampler: 

  • "Amerindian & Pre-Colonial." In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications [bibliography], comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library, 1997:  pp. [1-3].

---  Fort Corchaug

  • History (Southold Town.  Fort Corchaug and Downs Farm Preserve) 

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • Quinn, Mike.  "U.S. Puts Historic Ring Around Old Indian Fort."  Newsday, March 25, 1974:  p. 22.
  • Wacker, Ronnie.  "Site of an Indian Fort Studied."  New York Times, Section 11, May 27, 1984:  p. 16.
  • Saslow, Linda.  "Fight is on to Save an Old Indian Fort."  New York Times, Section 12, September 4, 1988:  p. 10.
  • Wick, Steve.  "Plan to Hold Down Old Indian Fort."  Newsday, December 8, 1988:  p. 30.
  • Blass, Gregory J.  "A Debt to Pay at Fort Corchaug" (Long Island Opinion).  New York Times, Section 12, January 29, 1989:  p. LI 20.
  • McDonald, John.  "Inian-Fort Buy Snags on Price."  Newsday, May 9, 1991:  p. 25.
  • Golden, Mary Kaye.  "Luxury Homes Eyed at Historic Fort.  Long Island Business News, March 28, 1994:  pp. 1, 46.
  • "Fort Corchaug Protected."  Peconic Land Trust Newsletter, 9(2) Fall 1997:  pp. 1-2.
  • "Fort Corchaug (Corchaug Ft.) [Cutchogue, N.Y.]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications [bibliography], comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  pp. [1-2].

---  Fort Neck (Fort Marsapeag / Massapeag), Battle / Massacre of, [1653?]

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • "Fort Massapeag[ue] (Ft. Marsapeag[ue], Marsapeag[ue] Ft., Massapeag[ue] Ft., Ft. Neck[West], probable site of Ft. Solomon)  [Fort Neck Park, Massapequa, N.Y.]  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [2].

---  Fort Pond Forts

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • "Fort Pond Forts (Ft. Hill, Ft. Neck [East], Ft. Montauk, Montauk Ft[s]., Old and New Fts.) [Montauk, N.Y.]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Fort Hill Fort

  • "Fort Hill Fort."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Napeague Harbor Fort

  • "Napeag Harbort Fort (Napeag[ue] Ft.)."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Shelter Island Fort

  • "Shelter Island Fort [hypothetical; somewhere on Shelter Island]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Shinnecock Fort(s)

  • "Shinnecock Fort(s) (Fort Shinnecock; "Mashomuck") [hypothetical, Sinnecock Hills Area, Southampton Town, NY]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Sebonack Area Fort

  • "Sebonac Area Fort." In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Sugar Loaf Area Fort

  • "Sugar Loaf (Shinnecock Hills) Area Fort."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [4].

-- Genealogy

--  History -- Colonial Period, ca. 1600-1775
---  L.I. Vertical File Sampler:

  • Strong, John A.  "Indian Labor During the Post-Contact Period on Long Island, 1626-1700."  In  To Know the Place:  Exploring Long Island History, ed. by Joann P. Krieg and Natalie A. Naylor, rev. & exp. ed.  Interlaken, NY:  Heart of the Lakes Publishing, prepared under the auspices of Hofstra University, 1995:  pp. 12-39.
  • Underhill, Lois Beachy.  "Wegwagonock and the English."  Sag Harbor Online (Sag Harbor Express, July 7, 1998)

-- Languages & Dialects
---  PML Catalog Sampler:

-- Matinecock Indian Nation

-- Montauk(ett) Indian Nation  (Metouac)
               See  Montauk[ett] Indian Nation (Metouac)  web page

--  Museums  [featuring Long Island Indian prehistory, history, archaeology and culture]

-- Names, Geographic
---  PML Catalog Sampler:

-- North Amityville, NY

  • Brewster-walker, Sandi.  "The South Side Railroad."  (Amityville Record, August 6, 2014)

-- Shinnecock Nation
               See  Shinnecock Indian Nation  web page

-- Unkechaug Nation 
               See  Unkechaug Indian Nation  web page

-- Setauket Indians

-- Whaling