Episode 1-2: Thoughts of a Free Man / Hard Boiled
1. King George III had a memorable shouting, shredding, barking, and spitting-mad fit of insanity, around October 1777.
2. The first recorded bout of the Madness of King George III took place in Oct. 1788, 11 years after the scene depicted in TURN, 5 years after America had already achieved its independence.
3. The hidden item, smuggled in a bust of King George III, in a ship bound for America, the smashing up of a room and and shooting of two lovers, including the sculptress-spy was a made-for-TV plot contrivance, probably intended to later give Robert Rogers more of a role and something interesting to do.
4. G. Washington first learned of the plot (Conway Cabal), to sack him as commander-in-chief, and to replace him with Horatio Gates, from Benjamin Tallmadge, in mid-October, 1777.
5. G. Washington first learned of the plot to sack him as commander-in-chief, and to replace him with Horatio Gates) from Maj. Gen. William Alexander ("Lord Stirling"), on November 3rd
6. Abraham Woodhull would marry Mary until November 24, 1781. Until then, he had neither wife nor child, certainly not in 1777; though he is portrayed then as married, with son, in TURN.
7. Abraham Woodhull was romantically engaged with Anna Smith Strong.
8. Anna, Woodhull's cousin, was over a decade his senior, with 6 children, a husband who was a judge, and lord of the northern Manor of St. George on Strong's Neck, Setauket, and not someone you wanted to cross, even if he was safely away in Connecticut with the kids. Anna was neither a bar maid, nor was she by this stage of her life likely everyone's love interest.
9. The Abraham Woodhull house was burned to the ground by his quick-thinking pyromanical wife Mary, in 1777, to disguise the murder of a British officer, leaving only the cellar intact.
10. The Abraham Woodhull house survived the Revolution, only to burn down in 1931, though a some bricks from the house presently grace and help mark Abraham Woodhull's grave.
11. The Conway Cabal took place before the Battle of Saratoga, which explains why Benedict Arnold strides in on two healthy legs.
12. The Conway Cabal began in the wake of victory at Saratoga, the victory being more Arnold's doing than Gates', for which Gates, as commader, took the credit.
13. France's Treaty of Alliance with the U.S., signed in Feb. 1778, was much the product of American victory and Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga, showing the Americans capable of occasionally defeating European regulars.
14. The partial reading then shredding of the Conway letter around the dinner table never happened.
15. The meeting actually took place in the morning, and Arnold, after assuming Tallmadge's seat, was asked by Washington, "Hungry Arnold?" The (indicative) reply, "Always", was followed by Washington's query, "Eggs, Benedict?"
16. Washington called Conway's bluff by letting the latter know he knew of the letter, and its content, placing Conway and his confederates on the defensive, and making denials.
17. Benedict Arnold was severely wounded in the leg at the second Battle of Saratoga, leading an American charge that overran the British Balcarres Redoubt. Today there is a monument to his boot on the battlefield site where he was wounded, with no mention of its owner's name, due to his later betrayal of the American cause.
18. Burgoyne surrendered on October 17, 1777. Upon learning of this, William and Richard Howe (the British land and naval commanders) both resigned their commands and returned to London, to defende their actions, command then devolving on Sir Henry Clinton.
19. Arnold resigned his commisson over a quarrel with Congress over his rank, but withdrew his resignation at Washington's request.
20. Washington and Arnold, respected each other, and were friends, prior to Arnold's defection.
21. Arnold hopped on one leg all the way from his hospital bed at Saratoga to Philadelphia, to be able to burst in on the dinner gathering and defend his friend Washington's reputation against the defamations of the Conway letter.
22. Washington was slow in reacting to the Conway's letter, and in defending himself, as claimed in TURN, by Benjamin Tallmadge.
23. Tallmadge was likely to have dared to dress down his commander-in-chief.
24. Washington repeatedly defended Arnold's reputation, held him in very high regard prior to Arnold's defection, told Arnold so, and assigned him command of Philadelphia, later offered him command of a field army, which Arnold refused in favor of the command of West Point, to which Washington acceeded.
Answers: 1. F; 2. T; 3. T; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. T; 11. F; 12. T; 13. T; 14. T; 15. F; 16. T; 17. T; 18. T; 19. T; 20. T; 21. F; 22. F; 23. F; 24. T.
Episode 3: False Flag
1. The identity of Agent 355, as stated in TURN is unquestionably accurate.
2. 355 was the code word for “lady,” and the Culper correspondence only uses the term once, never presenting an identity, leading to much later speculation and many contradictory assertions among historians, buffs, and novelists, as to whether 355 signified an active agent, simply the word lady, and to whom it might possibly refer.
3. Benjamin Franklin invented the glass armonica, bifocals, and the lightning rod, and was U.S, Commissioner to France when Philadelphia fell to the British, under Sir William Howe. Ben Franklin was seeking military and naval aid (with some covert success, thanks to a dummy company set up by Caron de Beaumarchais, best known as a playwright, author of The Barber of Seville) and a treaty of alliance.
4. His son, William Franklin, who had helped him and shared in his experiments, became a dyed-in-the-wool Tory, last Royal Governor of New Jersey, was arrested by patriots, later exchanged, and was estranged from his father for the rest of their lives. (Another evidence that the Revolution was also a civil war.)
5. Benjamin Franklin’s home was commandeered by an admiring Major John Andre, for 9 months, during the British occupation of Philadelphia, as indicated in TURN.
6. George Washington suffered defeats at Brandywine and Germantown, but retained his army intact and withdrew in good order, having almost won the latter (night) battle, then withdrawn before the British counterattack.
7. While Horatio Gates was hailed as the victor of Saratoga, as overall commander there, it was Benedict Arnold’s actions on Sept. 19 and Oct. 7 that, in fact, saved the American Northern Army's fortified position (ably prepared by Thaddeus Kosciuszko) from being flanked, and enabled Gates to later surround and force the surrender of Burgoyne’s Army, as American numbers continually swelled.
8. Arnold’s role at Saratoga would become more glaringly apparent when Gates’ southern army suffered a major defeat at Camden, South Carolina, in 1780, and Gates, till then hero of the moment, lost no time in ignominiously fleeing the field, ahead of the rest of his troops.
9. This was shortly before Benedict Arnold's defection dealt another blow to American morale (also causing panic within the Culper Ring, given what Arnold knew, or might know, about them).
10. John Graves Simcoe murdered Caleb Brewster's uncle before his eyes, and Brewster resented Benjamin Tallmadge for stopping him from instantly killing Simcoe, by tomahawk.
11. Officers could strike (hit) one another with impunity, fearing no repercussion or punishment from their superiors.
12. Caleb Brewster decided to resign his commission as a Capt. of Artillery to become a privateer.
13. Many nautical types found that engaging in privateering or in "The London Trade" (smuggling, notably across L.I. Sound, "The Devil's Belt"), while dangerous, was far more lucrative than serving in the army or navy, and some turned to piracy and inland raids.
14. Caleb Brewster could defy an order from his commander in chief (Washington), with impunity, and with no fear of punishment.
15. Richard Hewlett was a Tory from East Rockaway, NY, commanding Loyalist troops. His troops and he should be wearing either their own civilian clothes or green uniforms, as part of DeLancey's Brigade, not the crimson of British regulars, as shown again in TURN.
16. Simcoe's green and uniform, with white and tall cap is approximately correct for the Kings American Rangers, once they were issued uniforms.
17. Arnold's Saratoga leg wound (forgotten in the previous espisode), has resurfaced in this episode, with him no longer striding, but suddenly prone, bleeding, in pain, groaning, and with an occasional or frequent disinclination to be civil.
18. Simcoe's rank was Major.
19. Simcoe's rank was Lieutenant Colonel.
20. There are some grounds to believe that Peggy Shippen had some connection with John Andre, which may have later figured in the defection of Benedict Arnold.
21. Jefferson acquired his first polygraph (a British invention) in 1804, and immediately suggested improvements. But it was not available at the time TURN portrays it as Jefferson's invention.
22. The shack with no name, is a closer akin to a late 18th century version of Q's laboratory in James Bond novels and movies, than to period reality. This is not to say that there were not concealed weapons designed for espionage.
23. Benjamin Tallmadge was uable to set up a trap for a treasonous general by using Jefferson's polygraph duplicator to create a believable message.
24. Tallmadge was unable to set such a trap, as the polygraph had yet to be invented (in Britain, 1803), so Jefferson had none to lend Washington and his henchmen, and the story itself is ruse, trapping only the unsuspecting.
Answers: 1. F; 2. T; 3. T; 4. T; 5. T; 6. T; 7. T.; 8. T; 9. T; 10. F; 11. F; 12. F; 13. T; 14. F; 15. T; 16. T; 17. T; 18. F; 19. T; 20. T; 21. T; 22. T;23. F; 24. T.
Episode 4: Turning a General
1. The invisible ink, which was in very short supply, involved an agent and reagent chemical process.
2. The invisible ink used could be revealed by holding it above a candle.
3. Abraham Woodhull refused the use of invisible ink in favor of converting Robert Townsend to his agent in place in New York City.
4. Robert Townsend was initially, when approached to spy, no friend of Woodhull.
5. Andre's angry statement of his background to Peggy Shippen's father and counselors was essentially accurate.
6. Andre was an accomplished artist, poet, and playwright.
7. That John Andre recruited Peggy Shippen to turn Benedict Arnold, is now beyond all question.
8. Mugging and theft in the seedier areas of occupied New York City were common, but the incident involving Woodhull and his father's agent's murder are invented.
9. Robert Townsend knew of no Woodhulls in Oyster Bay.
10. Samuel Townsend, Robert Townsend's father, master of Raynham Hall, had been a prominent patriot, who had, following the British occupation of Oyster Bay, taken the loyalty oath to King George. Robert had had a lesser role in patriot affairs, but had also taken the oath, and posed as a Loyalist.
11. Richard Hewlett was at heart a frustrated British astronomer, with his eyes in the heavens, but his mind fixed upon Anna Smith Strong.
12. Robert Rogers attack on James Ryder's privateer camp is historical fact.
13. John Graves Simcoe just couldn't go to a new place without the pleasure, for him, of personally murdering someone in cold blood.
Answers: 1. T;2. F; 3. F;4. F;5. T;6. T;7. F;8. T;9. F;10. T;11. F; 12. F;13. F.
Episode 5: Sealed Fate
1. Robert Rogers, after being initially arrested by Congress, following his reappearance from Britain, was offered a commission, but refused it on the grounds that he was a British officer [then on half-pay], which did little to aleviate suspicions of his loyalties.
2. A meeting between George Washington and Robert Rogers took place in 1775, outside Boston, that transpired exactly as portrayed in TURN, and Rogers was taken, under guard, for trial in his native state of New Hampshire.
3. The meeting between George Washington and Robert Rogers took place in New York City, in 1776 (prior to the Battle of Long Island). But after initially arresting Rogers, Washington relented, and sent him, with an escort to Philadelphia, to, as Rogers claimed, offer his services to Congress.
4. En route to Philadelphia, Rogers managed to give his escort the slip, and made his way to British-occupied Staten Island, where he offered his services to General Sir William Howe.
5. British officer Albert Sutherland (whose great-great-great grandnephew is actor Donald Sutherland) murdered Nathaniel Sackett, then escaped through American lines, in a bright red uniform in broad daylight, without anyone noticing him.
6. Sutherland and Shanks (Bill Shanks is also coincidentally the name of a Macon Georgia Fox News Sports announcer) are fictional characters, who illustrate the intelligence difficulty of sifting truth from disinformation, when sources conflict, and also hint at the inherent dangers of believing the wrong thing.
7. Nathaniel Sackett, of Fishkill, NY died, unmurdered, in 1805.
8. There was a failed attempt to assassinate George Washington, by one of his own Life Guard, Thomas Hickey, who was duly hung, in June 1776.
9. Washington's slave, William "Billy" Lee would remain loyal to him throughout the war, and be freed by the terms of Washington's will.
10. Another of Washington's slaves, by contrast, Henry (Harry) Washington, following repeated escape attempts, succesfully went over to the enemy, serving in black regiments during the Revolution, later being transported to Sierra Leone; where he (ironically), at one point, participated in an unsuccessful rebellion, over taxtation.
11. Samuel Townsend knew about the Culper Ring and urged his son to join it.
12. The Townsends were Quakers, but also patriots.
13. Simcoe and the Queens Rangers were in Setauket in December 1777.
14. The document with George III's seal revealed to Washington that Britain was nearly banckrupt. So it was decided to send it with the local French representative to France and share the news.
15. The latter was intercepted and killed by Robert Rogers, and the document was destroyed, delaying French entry into the war as an American ally.
16. It was the British surrender at Saratoga that convinced France that the U.S. was capable of winning its independence, naturally with French support and alliance.
17. Major Hewlett was captured by cross-Sound American raiders, leaving the fair maid Anna at Simcoe's mercy.
18. The polygraph duplicator could also serve as an early form of lie detector, as presented in the final interrogation of Shanks, in TURN.
19. There was a love pentagon between Simcoe, Hewlett, Selah Strong, Abraham Woodhull and Anna Smith Strong.
20. Abraham Woodhull was captured with incriminating evidence, and held as a spy in December 1777.
Answers: 1. T; 2. F; 3. T; 4. T; 5. F; 6. T; 7. T; 8. T; 9. T; 10. T; 11. F; 12. T; 13. F; 14. F; 15. F; 16. T; 17. F; 18. F; 19. F; 20. F.
Episode 6: Houses Divided
- Abraham Woodhull and Edmund Hewlett were held as prisoners of the enemy at the same time.
- A prisoner exchange of Abraham Woodhull for Richard Hewlett was discussed by Benjamin Tallmadge and Caleb Brewster, with the decision made to instead rescue Major Hewlett, from an American prison.
- Richard Woodhull actually did accuse Mary Woodhull and Anna Smith Strong of knowing that Abraham Woodhull was a patriot spy.
- Anna Smith Strong had been living in Richard Woodhull's house, from which he banished her in the winter of 1777-78, and she went to live in the well-appointed cellar of Abe and Mary Woodhull's burned-down home.
- Abraham Woodhull was beaten to a pulp by American captives in New York City's Sugar House prison, because they believed him a loyalist.
- American prisoners were generally treated brutally by their British captors, kept in unsanitary, disease ridden, cramped conditions, without fresh air or bathrooms, resulting in some 30,000 deaths over the course of the Revolution, more than those killed on all war's battlefields combined.
- Only one Sugar House, in New York City, was used as a prison.
- In December 1777, Andre learned of a spy on Long Island identified as Samuel Culper, from a letter taken from Abraham Woodhull, when Woodhull was captured, in New York, and held as a spy.
- Anna Smith Strong persuaded John Graves Simcoe to launch a raid on Connecticut to rescue Major Hewlett from prison.
- Mary Woodhull dressed down her father-in-law, Richard Woodhull, for failing to even attempt to obtain his "wayward" revolutionary son's release.
- In real life, Richard Woodhull was a patriot, not a loyalist.
- Peggy Shippen and John Andre may have been lovers, and Peggy is believed to have been persuaded to induce Benedict Arnold to become a turncoat, and to defect to the British.
- Richard Hewlett had his first name legally changed to Edmund.
- Benjamin Tallmadge and Caleb Brewster planned to rescue Hewlett (without G. Washington's knowledge or approval), so that he could vouch for Abraham Woodhull's loyalist credentials, and obtain Woodhull's release; while at the same time J.G. Simcoe and the Queens American Rangers planned a descent on Connecticut, with the intent of staging a failed rescue atempt, in the course of which Hewlett would be unfortunately, but intentionally murdered.
- It would appear that the Woodhull and Hewlett imprisonments and rescue attempts depicted in TURN are figments of scriptwriting for enhanced dramatic effect, rather than what actually occurred.
- The Queens American Rangers were in Pennsylvania, not on Long Island, during the winter of 1777-78
- Truth is often stranger (and often more interesting) than fiction.
Answers: 1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. F; 6. T; 7. F; 8. F; 9. F; 10. F; 11. T; 12. T; 13. F; 14. F; 15. T; 16. T; 17. T.
Episode 7: Valley Forge
1. Washington had trouble with his teeth throughout his adult life, and this began prior to the Revolution. By the time he attained adulthood, he had few teeth left, of which to speak.
2. G. Washington wore false teeth made of wood.
3. G. Washington began wearing uncomfortabe dentures that altered his appearance, and were wired to his real teeth, starting sometime in the 1780s. Different pairs featured the teeth of cows, boars, goats, and humans. His face elongated, and his lower jaw jutted forward to became more prominent.
4. G. Washington did not wear a powdered wig. His sandy colored hair grayed naturally over the course of the Revolution.
5. G. Washington was subject to delusions of having all his bloody teeth suddenly drop out and bounce into his hands or clink merrily onto the floorboards of his tent. He also heard voices and saw visions, including those of his dead brother, Lawrence, who materialized to give him a pep talk, perfectly timed to save the Revolution, just after George had tried to murder his faithful "servant," William. Feeling fully restored to sanity, Washington decided he would remain commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and clean his room.
6. Washington is believed to have suffered a mental breakdown, diagnosed as "acute melancholia," as his doctor indicates, in January 1778.
7. G. Washington, had a host of afflictions including diptheria, malaria, dysentery, tuberculosis pleurisy (at age 25), all occurring (some, multiple times) before January 1778, and another considerable host of afflictions, after that date. But no major diseases or afflictions seem to have affected or overcome him at the time portrayed in TURN.
8. If Washington had any dark nights of the soul (in January 1778), it was more likely to have at its root, a seriously flawed commissary, Congressional intrigue, corrupt contractors, a paucity of supplies getting through to the Continental Army, endemic disease, desertion, discharges, deaths, payroll shortfalls and potential for muntiny, than by any mental breakdown on his part.
9. The famous contrived portrait of deist G. Washington, kneeling in prayer at Valley Forge, was in reality his kneeling before his dead brother's ghost, beseaching him to speak.
10. After a trip to Barbados for his health, Lawrence Washington, who had consumption (as it was then called, which we today call tuberculosis), died at his home at Mount Vernon, Virginia, rather than in Barbados, as depicted (to the tune of lilting 18th century Caribbean music, in the distance).
11. George Washington, who accompanied his brother to Barbados and back, contracted and recovered from smallpox, rendering him scarred, but immune to it during the Revolution, and an advocate of vaccination.
12. George Washington was aware that Culper (Sr.) was Abraham Woodhull, and readily blabed it to William, his slave.
13. Washington was troubled by Hewlett's execution and Woodhull's imprisonment.
14. Washington was not troubled by Hewlett's execution or Woodhull's imprisonment, because, in January 1778, neither was in jail, nor were they mistreated there.
15. Major Edmund (i.e., Richard) Hewlett was a British astronomer at heart, who cut off some of his frostbitten toes, and attacked and stabbed Simcoe in the stomach or thereabouts, when the latter came a'killing, to slaughter him. Hewlett thereupon made good his escape (from the skirmishing Americans and Queens Rangers), into the night, into a forest, naked or nearly so, upon frostbitten, bleeding, partly toeless feet, probably snapping off toes from the opposite foot, as he went, leaving a trail for his unlikely rescuers, Benjamin Tallmadge and Caleb Brewster, to follow, in Episode 8.
16. Frostbite, disease, and starvation were a frequent occurrence among American troops at Valley Forge, and in British prisons, moreso than in American ones. Richard Hewlett, toes intact, was a fairly healthy Tory Lt. Col. (not a British Major), as far as we know, at the time portrayed. Abraham Woodhull, while always worried about his potential revelation as a spy, was likely fairly hale and healthy at this time, not being in prison, or much troubled by his Patriot, not Loyalist, father.
17. Abraham Woodhull was betrayed to Capt. Yates, in the Sugar House prison, as a patriot spy, by a an American prisoner, promised his freedom in exchange for Woodhull's confession.
18. It may be that the scriptwriters of TURN decided that given King George III's cameo madness scene, that the Americans were not to be outdone, and so to balance the drama, and the universe, America's George had to do a compensatory bout with insanity; though this is all, of course, idle speculation.
19. G. Washington's headquarters at Valley Forge were in a solidly-constructed stone house belonging to Isaac Potts, rather than in his marquee (personal command tent).
20. G. Washington would likely have had his personal slave, William, treat him as an equal for a night, and tolerated, even encouraged, William's talking back to him, without consequence, as was common in the 18th century.
Answers: 1. T; 2. F; 3. T; 4. T; 5. F; 6. F; 7. T; 8. T; 9. F; 10. T; 11. T; 12. F; 13. F; 14. T; 15. F; 16. T; 17. F; 18. T; 19. T; 20. F.
Episode 8: Providence
1, British Major Hewlett, after escaping an American prison, where he was nearly put to death, dressing in a purloined American officer's uniform, hiding in the body of a well-deceased cow, for presumably putrid warmth against the winter chill, successfully eluded British Major Simcoe's Queens Rangers, also out to despatch him to his maker, even as Simcoe tended the wound given him by Hewlett.
2. Hewlett then caught conveniently located boat ride, back to Setauket, with a Setaukan who happened to be conveniently engaging in the illegal cross-Sound "London Trade", which Hewlett was willing to ignore.
3. Caleb Brewster hauled "The Turtle" all the way from a hut in Washington's Winter Camp in Morristown, NJ, in 1778, to New York Bay, then peddled across to New York City, partly underwater, only to be captured, blow up his sub, and do in his captors and melt into the crowd of spectators drawn by the explosion.
4. David Bushnell, after demonstrating that a powder keg could be exploded underwater, to his skeptical Yale instructors, invented "The American Turtle", an early submarine.
5. Bushnell's intent was to use his submarine to sink British ships- of-the-line (the battleships of that era). It was tried in the Boston area, NYC, New London, and Philadelphia, between 1776-78, without success.
6. It was Sgt. Ezra Lee who operated it in New York Bay, in 1776, not 1778, in an attempt by the American Turtle to destroy Sir Richard ("Black Dick") Howe's flagship, the 64-gun ship-of-the-line H.M.S.Eagle. According to American sources, the Turtle was towed by rowboats as close as possible to the British fleet without being spotted, Lee rowed into position for 2 hours, but was unable to attach the timed explosive charge. He was spotted en route back. The charge was set afloat in the direction of pursuing British rowboats. They turned back. A tremendous explosion soon ensued, and the Turtle make good its escape to the New Jersey shoreline. Yet, British sources make no mention of an attack, pursuit, or an explosion. So, there is some reason to speculate as to whether it ever occurred, is mere legend, or is ripping good American propaganda.
7. After his escape, like Major Hewlett, Brewster purloined a British officer's uniform, while paying a prostitute to keep the officer busily engaged, then slipped into an empty tent, shaved his beard, donned the perfectly fitting uniform and wig (without the slightest alarm being raised in the British camp over the disappearing uniform), made his way to the Sugar House where Abraham Woodhull was imprisoned and attempted unsuccessfully to rescue him.
8. If Caleb Brewster had had his way, the Culper Spy Ring would have ended in 1778.
9. The Culper Spy Ring was first formed in 1778.
10. Peggy Shippen and John Andre are definitely known to have planned to elope.
11. Peggy Shippen may have had an affair with John Andre, and may have been persuaded to act as his agent to help persuade Benedict Arnold to defect to the British. The exact extent of the relation is not fully known.
12. Benedict Arnold was given command of the garrison of Philadelphia, by Congress and Washington, in part to let him to recover from his leg wound.
13. Bendedict Arnold actively preferred and sought command of an army; until he changed his allegiance and changed his mind, asking for West Point.
14. Hewlett and Simcoe were mortal enemies.
15. Hewlett and Simcoe were allies, on the same side, both commanding Loyalist troops.
16. Robert Rogers was to be killed, on orders of King George III, which he discovered from the last survivor of his would-be murderers.
17. Robert Rogers after his brief time in England, raised the Kings Rangers, in Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1779, buit was removed from command due to heavy drinking.
Answers: 1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. T; 5. T; 6. T; 7. F; 8. F; 9. T; 10. F; 11. T; 12. T; 13. T; 14. F; 15. T; 16. F; 17. T.
Episode 9: The Prodigal
1. No British soldier is known to have been strung up on a village gallows in Setauket, during the entire course of the American Revolution.
2. In Oyster Bay, Samuel Townsend had his barn burned down, his horses commandeered (i.e., legally stolen), without receipt for remuneration, and a black eye to show for it.
3. In Oyster Bay, Samuel Townsend's house, known as Raynham Hall, was occupied for a time as Tory headquarters for the village, which made it easier to keep an eye on its owner, known for his earlier pronounced patriot sympathies.
4. Today, Raynham Hall is a museum, open to the public.
5. The Shippens' family carriage was attacked by a patriot mob, after the British army evacuated Philadelphia, because they were Tories, and their lives were saved only by the personal intervention of Benedict Arnold, newly appointed American military commandant of the city.
6, The red and green coats (British and Loyalist units) were virtually at war, in Setauket, NY, in 1778.
7. Benjamin Tallmadge asked to serve under Charles Lee at the Battle of Monmouth.
8. Hewlett and Simcoe and their troops were never stationed in Setauket, NY, at the same time, during the entire course of the American Revolution.
9. The torchlight night parley, which almost began on the model of a duel, in the woods outside Setauket, never took place.
10. Samuel Townsend was not only fully conversational with his son's activites as a spy, but he also knew of the nature of the special "secret stain" employed by the spy ring.
11. Contrary to Samuel Townsend's appeal in TURN, he had not one son, but three, of which Robert was the third, in addition to several daughters.
12. Hardluck Abe Woodhull was captured a second time, shortly after his release from a British prison, again with incriminating evidence of his espionage activities (Robert Townsend's first letter, after it had been decoded). This time it was by two Queens Rangers, who had been lying in wait outisde the charred basement door. This time Anna Smith Strong and then Caleb Brewster were also captured.
13. Our heroic threesome managed to overcome and slaughter their brutal captors, due to one of the latter's desire for oral sex, and not reckoning with Anna Smith Strong's prowess as a guerilla fighter.
14. A shot heard from the woods, would not have been noticed or investigated by the nearby garrison.
15. Abraham Woodhull had the leadership presence of mind, following the scuffle, to get the spy ring back on track, by sending Caleb Brewster back across the Sound to Washington, with the recaptured decoded message, while having him load his whaleboat with the two recently deceased Queens Rangers, to be dumped in the Sound (presumably to float back to shore), while planting evidence of foul play to keep the British and Tory contingents at each others' throats.
16. The invisible ink used by the American spies wasn't, in reality, rendered visible by using a reagent, but by using a secret decoder ring.
Answers: 1. T; 2. F; 3. T; 4. T; 5. F; 6. F; 7. F; 8. T; 9. T; 10. F; 11. T; 12. F; 13. F; 14. F; 15. F; 16. F.
Episode 10: Gunpowder, Treason, & Plot
1. A brawl between Simcoe's Queens Rangers and Hewlett's redcoats actually took place in Strong's tavern, Setauket, NY, in which soldiers were thrown not only through a window, but through the side of the building. Opposing soldiers then formed lines just outside the tavern, and nearly fired upon each other, but for the timely intercession of their feuding leaders.
2. Simcoe and his Queens Rangers were ordered to Philadelphia, from Setauket, just before the Battle of Monmouth.
3. Simcoe had been with Howe's troops on the Philadelphia Campaign of the previous year and was still with that army when Clinton took over command and led the army back to New York in 1778.
4. John Graves Simcoe was present at the Battle of Monmouth.
5. Benjamin Tallmadge was at the Battle of Monmouth, and led Charles Lee's van. Later in the battle he charged the British lines, solo, on horseback, and cut down many of their men, without suffering so much as a scratch. Meanwhile Caleb Brewster shot off a hand-held mortar at the same battle, to great effect.
6. Benjamin Tallmadge was busy recruiting, and raising funds and horses for his dragoons, in Connecticut, when the Battle of Monmouth took place, in New Jersey.
7. Hewlett and his troops were still in Setauket in June 1778, when the Battle of Monmouth.
8. Hewlett's troops had left Setauket very early 1778, under Clinton's orders, also destroying their fort, leaving Setauket ungarrisoned, essentially, for the remainder of the war.
9. Abraham Woodhull planned to murder Richard Hewlett, and was about to dispatch him, when he was stopped at the last minute, and persuaded by Anna Smith Strong and Mary Woodhull, to murder te courier, instead, which he did, with a little extra assist from Robert Rogers.
10. Abraham Woodhull is known to have committed murder(s), during the Revolution. Woodhull was, at heart, a serial killer.
11. For American slaves, going to Canada, during the American Revolution, was a guarantee that they would secure their freedom, once there.
12. A freed slave, joining, but then deserting the British Army (or a Tory force), in time of war, for any reason, would be dealt with severely.
13. Canada, as a beacon of freedom for American enslaved persons, chiefly belongs to a later era, along with the Underground Railroad.
14. During the Revolution, the British often offered enslaved persons their freedom, if they deserted their American masters, providing the latter were Patriots. But generally they returned runaway enslaved individuals, if owned by Tories. Having enslaved persons desert their enemies, was a way of disrupting the enemy economy, by removing part of the labor force.
15. At the Battle of Monmouth, as shown in TURN, sustained volley firing, for which the British triple lines were famous, and in which the Americans had recently been trained, was completely abandoned.
16. The Americans withdrew in stages at Monmouth, but their well-selected final line, behind West Ravine, not depicted in TURN, held despite repeated attacks, left, right, and center, by British forces. Washington seemed to be everywhere along his lines, inspiring his men, helping stabilize the lines. Eventually, Clinton withdrew.
17. Though the troops in TURN appear to hardly break a sweat, temperatures had been at least 90 degrees F on the march to and from the battlefield, and are said to have reached 100 degrees F on the battlefield itself, that day. Many deaths, and disablings that day, and along the roads, are believed to have been caused by heat stroke, heat prostration, and dehydration.
18. Washington dismissed Lee after failing to execute his orders, and failing to control his forces. He may or may not have sworn at Lee in the process, some say sworn a great deal.
19. Monmouth is significant as the last major battle fought in the northern colonies during the war, and is unusual, in that for the first time, thanks to the discipline and training instituted by von Steuben, the Americans were ultimately able to fight European regulars as equals, to a draw. Clinton's withdrawl from the field, and continued retreat entitled the Americans to claim a victory, and Washington to reestablish his primacy as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
20. Abraham Woodhull was caught by Robert Rogers, murdering a British soldier, proving Rogers' suspicion of Woodhull's loyalty.
21. Woodhull was repeatedly arrested and taken prisoner during the Revolution.
22. Robert Rogers, in 1778, was disengaged from the military, and engaged in a divorce proceeding, filed by his wife, which resulted not only in divorce, but in his losing custody of their child.
23. Revelation of a plot against Washington's life, involving one of his Life-Guards (who was promptly hung), occurred in 1776, not 1778, before the Culper Spy Ring even existed. Thus, Benjamin Tallmadge, Caleb Brewster, Abraham Woodhull, and Robert Townsend, contrary to that protrayed in TURN, had nothing to do with uncovering the would-be assassin.
24. Washington came to trust the Setauket Spies, because the information they obtained helped save his life, at Monmouth.
25. Washington came to trust the Setauket Spies, due to the quality of the information they were able to provide him, compared to some of his other sources, and did not to know, or want to know, the names of Tallmadges' operatives, Caleb Brewster excepted.
26. What exactly John Andre's intentions toward Peggy Shippen were, is largely unknown.
27. Robert Rogers offered to show his captive, Abraham Woodhull, how to properly set a trap for Maj. John Andre.
Answers: 1. F; 2. F; 3. T; 4. T; 5. F; 6. T; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. F; 11. F; 12. T; 13. T; 14; 15. F; 16. T; 17. T; 18. T; 19. T; 20. F; 21. F; 22. T; 23. T; 24. F; 25. T; 26. T; 27 F.