LI Indians (History and Prehistory)

       See also   Classic L.I. Histories and Document Collections  web page

                        Long Island History web page

                                e.g., Under  Archeology

                                                    Names, Geographic

                         L.I. - History Colonial Period, Ca. 1600-1775  web page

                        Montauk[ett] Indian Nation (Metouac)  web page (PML)

                        Shinnecock Indian Nation  web page (PML)

                        Unkechaug [Patchogue] Indian Nation  web page (PML)

 

--  General

             See also  Museums  (below)

---  PML Catalog Sampler:

---  Vertical File Sampler:

  • Weigand, Philip C.  "How Advanced were Long Island's Native Americans?:  A Challenge to the Traditional View."  Long Island Historical Journal, 17(1-2) Fall 2004/Spring 2005:  pp. 101-118.
  • Witek, John Charles.  "Bibles and Muskets:  The Acculturation of East End Native Americans in the Eighteenth Century.  Long Island Historical Journal, 6(2) Spring 1994:  208-222.  
  • Abrams, Arnold.  "Long Island's Invisible Indians:  Thirteen Tribes have Dwindled to Two.  Shoring Up Their Own Traditions, They Keep Their Problems to Themselves."  (On Long Island's Reservations).  Newsday, Part 2, July 14, 1984:  pp. A1-3.
  • Hevesi, Dennis.  "The Natives of this Island Eden Became Peaceful Giants."  Newsday, June 19, 1983:  p. G4.
  • Carter, Sylvia.  "Harvesting the Many Edibles of Our Wild."  Newsday, October 24, 1979:  p. A8.

--  Archeology

  • "Native Skeletal Finds on Shelter Island Dated."  Suffolk County Archaeological Association Newsletter,  Winter 2004:  [n.p.],
  • Lefer, David.  "Old Bones May Not Rest in Montauk."  Newsday, June 24, 1995:  [n.p.].
  • MacDonald, John.  Inside Long Island:  Archaeological Dig:  From 2000 Years Ago, Lost Tribe, Buried Civilization."  Newsday, February 6, 1994:  p. 8.
  • Scovel, Jim.  "Valuable, Elusive Traces of the Island's 13 Tribes."  Newsday, June 8, 1990:  3, 23.  -- Still perpetrating myth of 13 tribes in 1990
  • Wick, Steve.  "Shinnecock Discovery:  Remains of Village, Fort May Be 1,000 Years Old."  Newsday, June 8, 1990:  3, 23.
  • Peddie, Sandra.  "New Digs Show Ancient LI."   (Part II) Newsday, February 3, 1986:  pp. 4-5.
  • Ottusch-Kianka, Donna I.  "Muttontown Preserve and NCM #229:  A Tale of Two Inland Sites."  Suffolk County Archaeological Association. Newsletter, Fall 1985:  pp. 69.
  • Aug, Daniel H.  "Archeologists Really Dig Find on Middle Island Site."  Suffolk Life, August 14, 1985:  [n.p.].
  • Mikorenda, Jerry.  "Indian Data at Development?" (LI) New York Times, May 5, 1985: pp. 8-9.  -- Fort Salonga 
  • Peddie, Sandra.  "Experts Find Evidence of Ancient LI Village."  Newsday, November 6, 1985:  p. 6. -- 1st evidence of entire intact village (Middle Island, NY)
  • Gwynne, Grechen.  "New Evidence on Indians."  The Suffolk Historian, v. 9 (1984).  1 p.
  • Wacker, Bob.  "Site of an Indian Fort Studied."  New York Times, May 27, 1984:  [n.p.].  -- Fort Corchaugue (Cutchogue, NY)
  • "Archaeologists Investigate Mashomack."  Mashomack Preserve Newsletter, Fall-Winter 1983:  pp. 1-2.
  • Delatiner, Barbara.  "Tracing L.I. Life 3,000 Years Ago."  New York Times, August 21, 1983:  pp. 1, 16.
  • Ellison, David.  "Southold's New Residents Mor than 500 Years Old."  Long Island Heritage, October 1982:  p. 41.
  • Breslin, Rosemary.  "Indian Bones Go Back on View."  (Long Island Journal)  New York Times, September 19, 1982:  p. 3. 
  • Culbertson, Judi.  "Tracing L.I. Life 3,000 Years Ago."  (Long Island Weekly) New York Times, September 13, 1981:  pp. 1, 4.
  • Wacker, Bob.  "Underwater Dig for Indian Kitchens."  Newsday, March 2, 1980:  p. 25.-- 3000 year old kitchens, in Flanders Bay
  • Hevesi, Dennis,  "When Indians Lived in Queens."  Newsday, August 10, 1977:  pp. 4A-5A.
  • Paltrow, Scot.  "That's the Way It Was:  LI in 2000 BC."  Newsday, July 9, 1976:  p. 17.
  • Salant, Jonathan.  "Digging for a Lifestyle." Newsday, August 17, 1975:  p. 21.
  • Freedman, Mitchell.  "Archeologists Bemoan Loss of Sites on LI."  Newsday, February 28, 1975:  p. 19. -- bulldozers and pot hunters and settlements obscured
  • Jacobsen, Aileen.  "Skeleton Adds Pieces on LI's Past."  Newsday, October 8, 1974:  [n.p.].  -- Mill Neck Creek, Bayville
  • Kaufman, Bill.  "Archaeologically, It's a Model Site."  Newsday, December 8, 1973:  pp. 3A-
  • Werner, Ben, Jr.  The Indians of Long Island, New York and Coastal Connecticut.  Port Jefferson, NY:  Yorkshire Publishing Co., 1973.
  • Nassau County Museum of Natural History.  The Indian Archaeology of Long Island (Educational Leaflet 17).  [s.l.:  The Museum, [ca. 1970].
  • Ykloc, Beck K.Q.  "2 Skeletons Found:  Bones Could Be Indians.'"  Suffolk Sun, October 18, 1968:  [n.p.].   -- Northport, 1000 years ago
  • Bowler, Michael and Byron Porterfield.  "Teacher Finds 6 Old Skeletons."  Suffolk Sun, December 15, 1967:  1A, 2A.  -- Strongs Neck, Setauket, NY
  • "Digs Up Implements which may Ante-date Indians, at Holbrook."  The Argus, August 20, 1940:  [n.p.].
  • Beauchamp, William Martin.  "Suffolk County."  In  Aboriginal Occupation of New York.  Bulletin of the  New York State Museum, 32(7) February 1900:  pp. 148-150.  (Internet Archive)
  • Fullam, Anne and Mitchell Freedman.  "Spirit of the Agreement:  Tribe to Oversee Digging at Site of Possible Ancient Village."  [Newsday?, n.d.:  pp. [?], 27. 
  • Martin, Robert B.  "Outline Forgotten Village."  [Newsday?], [n.d.]:  pp. 1, 6.
  • Saslow, Linda.  "Greenlawn Housing on Indian Settlement."  (LI) New York Times, [?] 1991:  p. 8.
  • "Town OK's Archeological Dig iat MI."  [Newsday?, n.d.:  n.p.]  -- Middle Island
  • Virag, Irene.  "From the Ice, Tales of a Lake."  (Long Island Diary) [Newsday?], n.d.:  pp. 27, 30.  -- Lake Ronkonkoma
  • Werner, Ben, Jr.  Indian Archaeology of Long Island.  Stony Brook, NY:  The Suffolk Museum, [n.d.].
  • Wetzel, Debra.  "Loss of L.I. Indian Relics Feared."  New York Times, May 18, 1986:  [n.p.].


--  Architecture

 

--  Biography

 

--  Burial Grounds

  • Wick, Steve.  "Preservation Sought for Burial Ground." Newsday, July 14, 1988:  p. 31.
  • Gatewood, Dallas.  "Land Sale to Preserve Indian Burial Ground."  Newsday, November 23, 1983:  p. S25.
  • Levine, Gaynell Stone.  "Rites and Customs:  Mourning and Burial Customs."  In Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians (Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, v. 4.).  Stony Brook, NY; Lexington, MA:  Published for the Suffolk County Archaeology Association; by Ginn Publishing Co., 1980:  pp. 296-300.
  • Ritchie, William A.  "Orient Focus, ? Aspect, ? Phase, ? Patterns: The Pre-Iroquoian Occupations of New York State" (Rochester Museum Memoir, No. 1).  Rochester, NY:  Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1944:  pp. 227-233.

 

--  Cultural & Religious Aspects

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • Strong, John A.  "The Algonquian Belief System."  In The Algonquian Peoples of Long Island, From Earliest Times to 1700.  Hempstead, NY; Interlaken, NY:  Published for Hofstra University.  Long Island Studies Institute; by Empire State Books, 1997:  pp. 109-141.
  • Strong, John A.  "The Reaffirmation of Tradition Among the Native Americans of Eastern Long Island."  Long Island Historical Journal, 7(1) Fall 1994:  pp. 42-67.
  • Golder, William E.  Long Island's First Inhabitants:  A Summary of Algonquin Culture and the Ice Age to Colonial Times.  Southold, NY:  New York State Archaeological Association.  Long Island Chapter, Inc., 1981.  [40 p.].  
  • Levine, Gaynell Stone.  "Rites and Customs:  Visual Expression of Beliefs."  In Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians (Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, v. 4.).  Stony Brook, NY; Lexington, MA:  Published for the Suffolk County Archaeology Association; by Ginn Publishing Co., 1980:  pp. 301-307.
  • Feder, Norman.  Long Island Indian Culture  (Denver Art Museum.  Department of Indian Art, Leaflet No. 50 June, 1932, repr. Nov. 1968)  -- 1 folded sheet (4 p.)

 

--  Deeds

 

--  Fishers Island, N.Y.

---  PML Catalog Sampler:

 

--  Forts / Ceremonial Centers 

--- PML Catalog Sampler:

---  PML Vertical File Sampler: 

  • "Amerindian & Pre-Colonial." In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications [bibliography], comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library, 1997:  pp. [1-3].

---  Fort Corchaug

  • History (Southold Town.  Fort Corchaug and Downs Farm Preserve) 

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • Quinn, Mike.  "U.S. Puts Historic Ring Around Old Indian Fort."  Newsday, March 25, 1974:  p. 22.
  • Wacker, Ronnie.  "Site of an Indian Fort Studied."  New York Times, Section 11, May 27, 1984:  p. 16.
  • Saslow, Linda.  "Fight is on to Save an Old Indian Fort."  New York Times, Section 12, September 4, 1988:  p. 10.
  • Wick, Steve.  "Plan to Hold Down Old Indian Fort."  Newsday, December 8, 1988:  p. 30.
  • Blass, Gregory J.  "A Debt to Pay at Fort Corchaug" (Long Island Opinion).  New York Times, Section 12, January 29, 1989:  p. LI 20.
  • McDonald, John.  "Inian-Fort Buy Snags on Price."  Newsday, May 9, 1991:  p. 25.
  • Golden, Mary Kaye.  "Luxury Homes Eyed at Historic Fort.  Long Island Business News, March 28, 1994:  pp. 1, 46.
  • "Fort Corchaug Protected."  Peconic Land Trust Newsletter, 9(2) Fall 1997:  pp. 1-2.
  • "Fort Corchaug (Corchaug Ft.) [Cutchogue, N.Y.]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications [bibliography], comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  pp. [1-2].

---  Fort Neck (Fort Marsapeag / Massapeag), Battle / Massacre of, [1653?]

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • "Fort Massapeag[ue] (Ft. Marsapeag[ue], Marsapeag[ue] Ft., Massapeag[ue] Ft., Ft. Neck[West], probable site of Ft. Solomon)  [Fort Neck Park, Massapequa, N.Y.]  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [2].

---  Fort Pond Forts

---  PML Vertical File Sampler:

  • "Fort Pond Forts (Ft. Hill, Ft. Neck [East], Ft. Montauk, Montauk Ft[s]., Old and New Fts.) [Montauk, N.Y.]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Fort Hill Fort

  • "Fort Hill Fort."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Napeague Harbor Fort

  • "Napeag Harbort Fort (Napeag[ue] Ft.)."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Shelter Island Fort

  • "Shelter Island Fort [hypothetical; somewhere on Shelter Island]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Shinnecock Fort(s)

  • "Shinnecock Fort(s) (Fort Shinnecock; "Mashomuck") [hypothetical, Sinnecock Hills Area, Southampton Town, NY]."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Sebonack Area Fort

  • "Sebonac Area Fort." In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [3].

---  Sugar Loaf Area Fort

  • "Sugar Loaf (Shinnecock Hills) Area Fort."  In Individual Long Island Forts and Fortifications, comp. by Mark Rothenberg.  [Patchogue, NY:  Patchogue-Medford Library], 1997:  p. [4].

 

-- Genealogy

 

--  History -- Colonial Period, ca. 1600-1775

---  L.I. Vertical File Sampler:

  • Strong, John A.  "Indian Labor During the Post-Contact Period on Long Island, 1626-1700."  In  To Know the Place:  Exploring Long Island History, ed. by Joann P. Krieg and Natalie A. Naylor, rev. & exp. ed.  Interlaken, NY:  Heart of the Lakes Publishing, prepared under the auspices of Hofstra University, 1995:  pp. 12-39.
  • Underhill, Lois Beachy.  "Wegwagonock and the English."  Sag Harbor Online (Sag Harbor Express, July 7, 1998)

 

-- Languages & Dialects

---  PML Catalog Sampler:

 

-- Montauk(ett) Indian Nation  (Metouac)

                 See  Montauk[ett] Indian Nation (Metouac)  web page

 

--  Museums  [featuring Long Island Indian prehistory, history, archaeology and culture]

  

-- Names, Geographic

---  PML Catalog Sampler:

 

-- North Amityville, NY

  • Brewster-walker, Sandi.  "The South Side Railroad."  (Amityville Record, August 6, 2014)

-- Shinnecock Nation

               See  Shinnecock Indian Nation  web page

 

-- Unkechaug Nation 

            See  Unkechaug Indian Nation  web page

 

-- Setauket Indians

-- Whaling