Hollywood & History in AMC’s TURN: Washington's Spies: Some Readings & Contexts

Hollywood & History in AMC's 

TURN:  Washington's Spies:

The Setauket Spy Ring:  Some Readings & Contexts

(The Role of Long Island, NY, in the American Revolution)

Comp. & ed. by Mark H. Rothenberg, Local History  Liaison,

The Patchogue-Medford Library  & Suffolk Cooperative Library System

[A Note on Subject Heading colors below:  Medium Blue = Patriots /Revolutionaries; Red = British; Green = Loyalist; Light Blue = French; Prussian Blue = Germans / "Hessians"; Black = Neutral (mostly Long Island geographic names)]


General   [in additition to this web page]


        AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies, is now in its 4th (and final) Season, due to start on June 17th, with a double episode from (9-11 p.m.).  The remaining episodes will air weekly (for the next 8 weeks).  Seasons 1-3 are available on DVD.  Check with your library to see if they have circulating copies.  If you have Cablevision, you can reasonably expect that Season 3 episodes will soon again be available via Channel 500, to prime the pump for Season 4.  Editorial comment:  The acting in the series is quite fine, but the plot is largely fiction, though what actually happened on and off Long Island (and related to it) during the war, is just as fascinating.


  • True or False in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies [Season 4 Quiz:  2017]  (Patchogue-Medford Library.  Celia M. Hastings Local History Room), comp. & ed. by Mark Rothenberg -- will be prepared after episodes publicly air. Episode-by-episode, True or False statements, with Answers below, usually appearing on Monday afternoons, following the episode's airing on Saturday night..  Answers are fleshed out in the Hollywood and History in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies.
  • True or False in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies [Season 3 Quiz:  2016]   (Patchogue-Medford Library.  Celia M. Hastings Local History Room), comp. & ed. by Mark Rothenberg -- prepared after episodes publicly air. Episode-by-episode, True or False statements, with Answers below, usually appearing on Tuesday afternoons, immediately following the episode's airing the previous night.  Answers are fleshed out in the Hollywood and History in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies.  
  • True or False in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies  [Season 2 Quiz:  2015]  (Patchogue-Medford Library.  Celia M. Hastings Local History Room),  comp. & ed. by Mark Rothenberg -- Episode-by-episode, True or False statements, with Answers below, much of it fleshed out in the, the Hollywood and History in AMC's TURN:  Washington's Spies web page)
  • True or False in AMC's TURN  [Season 1 Quiz:  2014]  (Patchogue-Medford Library.  Celia M. Hastings Local History Room), comp. & ed. by Mark Rothenberg  -- Episode-by-episode, True or False statements, Answers below, most of it fleshed out in this, the Hollywood and History in AMC's TURN web page)
  • TURN to a Historian (SpyCurious.com) -- excellent critical articles, tied to many themes portrayed in the AMC series, sorting fact from fiction; commentary on each season's accuracy -- facts, chronology, portrayals, actual vs. televised military units and uniforms, period customs, period accents...etc.  An esp. useful Topic Index has ben added.  -- Highly recommended.   Many articles are by historian Todd Braisted, webmaster of  the On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies (also highly recommended, containing many primary sources).  
  • It Happened in Setauket...General Washington's Culper Spy Ring (Emma S. Clark Memorial Library) -- clickable map, Culper Spy Ring-themed walking tour, by historian, Beverly Tyler, with recommended readings (adult, young, adult, and children's), recommended websites, and a bicentennial commemorative coin.  Prepared by Setauket's own Library, directly across from the village green, site of the Battle of Setauket. -- Highly recommended, particularly for those considering a trip to Setauket.
  • Spies! [video lecture], by historian Bev Tyler, delivered before the Greater Patchogue Historical Society, on 4/16/15  (recorded by the Citizens Campaign for Open Village Government) -- Tour de force lecture on the real Culper Spy Ring (of Setauket), during the American Revolutionary War.  (Scroll down slightly to the video, then click.)  Bev Tyler is a distinguished, published local historian, active in the Three Village Historical Society, who is a frequent leader and speaker at Brookhaven Town historical events, and also leads tours, in summer, of the Three Village area of L.I., including one on Setauket sites associated with the Culper Spy Ring, for which he appears in period costume, portraying Abraham Woodhull. In this lecture he presents the Ring and its activities, revealing many instances in which AMC's TURN either got it right, got it wrong, or woefully wrong, and how it has bolstered national interest and local tourism.
  • Tyler, Beverly.  The Setauket Spy Ring Story.  Setauket, NY:  The Author, 2014.  (Beverly Tyler) -- A fine, succinct overview by the historian-Abraham Woodhull reenactor-Three Village /Setauket tour guide, who has studied it backward and forward. 
  • Welch, Richard F.  "Televising History:  The Case of TURN" (Engaging with the Past).  Journal of the Suffolk County Historical Society, v. 30 (March 2016):  pp. 33-36. -- A thought provoking article that raises good questions, esp. about popular perceptions of historical reality, respect and disrespect for the past. -- One minor observation:  The article claims that there is no evidence of local blacks serving in Tory military units (p. 35). There is at least one instance, buried in Onderdonck.  He writes that in a November 6, 1776 raid on Setauket harbor, 23 men of Col. [Jacob] Smith's understrength company of Tory militia (Delancey's Brigade) were captured (Smith included), and taken to Connecticut.  "The prisoners are a motley herd, half being negroes and Indians."
  • Daigler, Kenneth A.  Spies, Patriots, and Traitors:  American Intelligence in the Revolutionary War.  Washington, DC:  Georgetown University Press, 2014. -- Non-Fiction and LI REF 973.385 DAI. -- Presents the L.I. spy ring in broader context; See esp. Culper Ring entries in the Index, p. 304.  The skills that Washington learned by hard knocks in the French and Indian War, while not covered in TURN, form the first chapter.  His experiences seeking and attempting to gather adequate, reliable intelligence on the Ohio River, at Ft. Necessity, on the Monongahela, and in attempting to guard the porous frontier of the Shenandoah Valley from mobile Indian attacks, were formative.  It affected how closely he managed his spies, during the Revolution.
"Agent 355" 
       The Culper Spy Ring code book lists "355" as meaning "lady," and while much speculation abounds, and definite and conflicting conclusions have been drawn (and quartered) relating to both her identity and significance of her contributions, as well as to her fate, and even offspring, the sole evidence for any of this is the one-time veiled, though promisingly complimentary, use of the term 355.        


American Militia, Minutemen, Colonial/State Line Regulars, Continentals (from and on L.I.)


The American Turtle (early submarine) 

          See  Bushnell, David



Andre, John, 1750-1780 

          See also  Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring

                         Raynham Hall

                         Townsend, Sally

                         Townsend, Robert

                         Woodhull, Abraham


Arnold, Benedict, 1741-1801

         See also   Andre, John

                         Danbury Raid, 1777

                         New London & Groton Heights Raid, 1781


Arnold, Margaret (Peggy) Shippen, 1760-1804 


The Asscociation, Signers & Objectors

      See also  Loyalty Oaths, American


Beaumarchais, Pierre August Caron de, 1732-1799


Black Hole of Calcutta


Blue Point, NY


Brewster, Caleb, 1747-1827


Brookhaven (NY : Town)

Burial Traditions, British

  • Early Practice (The British Empire.  Imperial and Commonweath War Graves and Cemeteries:  Honouring the Fallen) 


Bushnell, David, 1742-1824


 Churchill, Elijah, 1755-1841  [recipient of the first purple heart, for actions on Long Island]


Clinton, Sir Henry, 1738-1795 (Commander, British Forces, North America, 1778-1782)

           See also   Andre, John, 1750-1780


Codes, Secret

            See also     Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring

                              Sympathetic Stain

                              Washington, George


Committees of Safety

  • New York (The Middle Colonies).  (Committees of Protection, Correspondence and Safety)


Company of Armed Boatmen



         See also   New London and Groton Heights Raid, 1781

                         Whaleboat Warfare


Conway Cabal


Coram, NY

         See   Tallmadge Raid, 1780   


         Note:  While the usual emphasis is on the capture of Loyalist-held Fort St. George in Mastic, destruction of the hay forage at Coram was the prime objective to George Washington.  Why?  Think horses, fodder, and mobility of armed forces, artillery, supplies, and ordinance, for British defense of Long Island and projecting raids across the New England coast.





Cowboys and Skinners

        See   Neutral Ground



HMS Culloden   [a 74-gun 3rd rate ship-of-the-line; shipwrecked off what is now called Culloden Point.  Note:  One of several ships that bore that name; sometimes mis-characterized as a frigate, which would have been a smaller ship with fewer guns; this was a line-of-battle ship (in effect, one of the Royal Navy battleships of its day.] 



Culper Spy Day [2015, 2016, & 2017]


Culper Spy Ring 

        See   Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring



Danbury Raid, 1777

        See also  Tryon, William

                       Arnold, Benedict 


Dawkins, Henry

          See also   Counterfeiting

                          Hickey, Thomas, d. 1776


Dayton, Ebenezer, 1744-1827


DeLancey, Oliver, Sr., 1708-1785

         See also   DeLancey, Olver, Jr., 1749-1822

                         Drowned Meadow, NY

                        Marks, Nathaniel, 1746-1799

DeLancey, Oliver, Jr., 1749-1822  [17th Dragoon Regiment, later Gen. Clinton's Adjutant General)

         See also   DeLancey, Olver, Jr., 1749-1822

                          Long Island, Battle of, 1776


DeLancey's Brigade

           See  DeLancey, Oliver, Sr., 1708-1785


Drowned Meadow, NY  [later Port Jefferson, NY]

         See also  DeLancey, Oliver

                        Marks, Nehemiah, 1746-1799

                        Roe, Nathaniel & Phillips Roe

  • Barkley, Giselle.  "Drowned Meadow:  Port Jefferson Finds Its Place in Spy Ring History."  (TBR Newsmedia, September 28, 2015)
  • Cohen, Lon.  "Centuries-Old Roe House Opens as Museum:  More than 250 Yers After It was Built in Port Jeff, Roe House Becomes Centerpiece of Exhibit."  (Port Jefferson Patch, October 5, 2011)
  • Leuzzi, Linda.  "A Letter of Significance" (North Bellport/Port Jefferson).  Long Island Advance, October 22, 2015:  p. 19.  -- The Roes of Drowned Meadow were denounced to loyalist Col. Oliver DeLancey, for providing supplies and intelligence to the rebels, notably to Caleb Brewster (who we now know was a member of the Culper Spy Ring). The fact that they were also relatives of Austin Roe, in nearby Setauket, and that the Culper Spy Ring was a tightly-knit circle of relatives and friends (what today would be called a "cell"), and that that Brewster vouched for their steadfast loyalty after the war, in a claims case, all are strongly suggestive that they were either directly or indirectly part of the Ring, or assisted it.  In either case, it was a very dangerous undertaking for anyone behind British lines.  They were ordered to be kept under observation.  


East Hampton (NY : Town)

        See also  Sag Harbor, NY


        See also  Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring


Fairfield, CT, Raid on, 1779

      See  New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk Raid, 1779



Flatboats (British)


Fort Franklin  [Named not after Benjamin, but for his estranged son William Franklin, deposed Royal Governor of New Jersey, a leading Loyalist.]

        See also   Franklin, Benjamin & William Franklin

                        Lloyd's Neck 


Fort Golgotha


        See also  Huntington (NY : Town)

                      Thompson, Benjamin


Fort St. George


         See  Tallmadge, Benjamin



Fort Slongo (or Fort Salonga)


Fort Setauket


       See also  Setauket, Battle of, 1777

                       Setauket, NY

  •  History  (Setauket Presbyterian Church) – during the Revolution, fortified, desecrated, used as a stable
  • Setauket Presbyterian Church  (Three Village Central School District)


Forts, American

  • Roberts, Robert B.  “Brooklyn.” In  New York’s Forts in the Revolution.  Rutherford, NJ:  Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1980:  pp. 243-255.  -- Local History:  NY REF 974.703  ROB


Forts, British

  • Roberts, Robert B.  “The Long Island Forts:  Sag Harbor Fort, Fort Setauket, Oyster Bay Encampment, Fort Franklin, Fort St. George, Fort Slongo, Fort Golgotha, Nassau and Suffolk Counties.” In  New York’s Forts in the Revolution.  Rutherford, NJ:  Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1980:  pp. 243-255.  -- Local History:  NY REF 974.703  ROB


Sag Harbor Fort


         See   Meigs, Return Jonathan

                  Sag Harbor, Battle of , 1777



Floyd, William, 1734-1821 (of Mastic, NY), Signer of the Declaration of Independenc

        See also  Brookhaven (NY : Town) -- includes a section with frequent mention of Floyd


Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 & William Franklin, 1730-1813

       See also  Fort Franklin


Gardiners Island


Genealogical Disinformation in TURN

           See also under  surnames of key American historical figures


Good Ground, NY  [today's Hampton Bays, NY]


        See also  Sounthampton (N.Y. : Town)


Greenport, NY


           See           Arnold, Benedict

           See also    New London and Groton Heights Raid, 1781



Hale, Nathan, 1755-17

           See also   Halesite, NY

                         Huntington (NY : Town)

                               Rogers, Robert


Halesite, NY

          See also  Hale, Nathan

                        Rogers, Robert


Hammon, Jupiter


          See Lloyd Neck



Hampton Bays, NY


          See  Good Ground, NY



Hempstead (NY : Town)

  • McKenna, James M.  "The Hempstead Plains:  A Capital Field for Military Exercises, 1700-1898."  In  Nassau County:  From Rural Hinterland to Suburban Metropolis (Hofstra University.  Long Island Studies Institute), ed. by Joann P. Krier and Natalie A. Naylor.  pp. 143-149.  Interlaken, NY:  Empire Books, 2000. 
  • “Town of Hempstead in the Revolution.”  In The Roots and Heritage of Hempstead Towned. by Natalie A. Naylor, prepared under the auspices of Hofstra University.  Interlaken, NY:  Heart of the Lakes Publishing, 1994:  pp. 109-121.  Non-Fiction; Circ. Storage; LI REF  974.7425  T-HEMP ROO


Hempstead Swamp, Battle of, 1775



"Hessians"  [A partly inaccurate collective name for mercenaries hired from ruling houses of Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Brunswick and other German principalities, generally wearing blue or black uniforms, and occasionally (hunter) green (jaeger) uniforms; to supplement a shortfall in British troop recruiting and enlistments, in a not so popular war]  


Hewlett, Richard, 1733-1789

        See also    DeLancey, Oliver, Sr.

                        Hempstead Swamp, Battle of, 1776

                        Strong, Selah


Hickey, Thomas, d.1776

        See also  Counterfeiting

                       Dawkins, Henry

                       Washington, George


Howe, Richard ["Black Dick"], Earl, 1726-1799  (Admiral, British Invasion Fleet, 1776-1778)

         See also  Bushnell, David

                        Howe, William, Viscount, 1729-1814


Howe, William, Viscount, 1729-1814  (Commander, British Forces, North America, 1776-1778)

            See also   Andre, John, 1750-1780

                            Clinton, Sir Henry, 1738-1795

                            Howe, Richard ["Black Dick"], Earl, 1726-1799

                            Lee, Charles

                            Washington, George


Huntington (NY : Town)  -- then included what would later become the Town of Babylon


           See also   Fort Golgotha

                         Hale, Nathan

                         Rogers, Robert

                         Thomson, Benjamin



         See also   Rogers, Robert


Islip (NY : Town)


Jameson, John, 1751-1810


Jay, Sir James, 1732-1813

       See also  Sympathetic Stain


Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826


Kings American Dragoons

          See also  Thompson, Benjamin


Kings County (Brooklyn), NY


Kosciuszko, Tadeusz, 1746-1817


Lee, Charles, 1731-1782


Lee, William ("Billy"), 1750-1828


Lloyd Neck

         See also   Fort Franklin



Long Island, NY 

         See also  Kings County

                        Queens County

                        Suffolk County


          See also Under  individual names of Long Island towns and villages


Long Island [or Brooklyn], Battle of, 1776

         See also  New York-New Jersey Campaign, 1776 


Long Island Indians


Long Island Sound  (a/k/a  The Devil's Belt, during this period)

         See also   Whaleboat Warfare [Privateering and Piracy]


Longwood Area (of Suffolk County) -- Coram, Middle Island, Ridge, & Yaphank


Loyalty Oaths, British [to the British Crown]

       See also  Loyalists


Loyalty Oaths, American -- Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town)



        See also  Arnold, Benedict

                       Arnold, Margaret (Peggy) Shippen

                       DeLancey, Oliver, Jr.

                       DeLancey, Oliver, Sr.

                       Hewlett, Richard

                       Hickey, Thomas

                       Loyalty Oaths

                       Marks, Nehemiah, Sr.

                       Rogers, Robert

                       Simcoe, John Graves

                       Thompson, Benjamin

                       Washington, Henry


Marks, Nehemiah, Sr. (1746-1799)


Mastic, NY

          See   Floyd, William


Mastic Beach, NY

          See    Tallmadge, Benjamin   [per the taking of Fort St. George]


Manor of St. George  

          [Note:  Judge William "Tangier" Smith built colonial manor houses on both the north south

                   shores of L.I.  The latter was fortified by Tories, and taken by a U.S. raid, during the


          See   Setauket, NY         

                   Tallmadge, Benjamin


Many Mickles Makes a Muckle 


Meigs, Return Jonathan, 1740-1823

           See also  Sag Harbor, Battle of, 1777  [Meigs' Raid] 


Mulligan, Hercules, 1740-1825




The Neutral Ground  ("No Man's Land"]


New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk Raid, 1779

         See also   Danbury Raid, 1777

                         Tryon, William


New London & Groton Heights Raid, 1781 -- led by Benedict Arnold, from Greenport, L.I.


New York-New Jersey Campaign, 1776


        See also  Long Island [or Brooklyn], Battle of, 1776


New York, NY


New York (State).   Office of the Comptroller


New York (State).  Committee and Commission for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies


Newport, RI

  • The Culper Spy Ring was Not the First to Warn the French at Newport, by Christian McBurney (Journal of the American Revolution, Dec. 9, 2014)  -- True enough, but Alexander Hamilton's rider did provide official confirmation, and the French Army and Navy appear to already have been prepared to receive an attack.  Of perhaps greater import was Washington's response to the Culper message.  He planted information that he was about to launch a major assault on New York (in the absence of the defending force sent to Newport, and demonstrate at the North end of Manhattan to reinforce that idea.  Clinton quickly recalled his invasion force back to New York, perhaps saving the Revolution, as well as the Franco-American Alliance (that Clinton had earlier intended to crush at one blow).       


North Hempstead (NY : Town)


Norwalk, CT, Raid on, 1779

        See  New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk Raid, 1779



Occupation of Long Island, British


Oyster Bay (NY : Town)

       See also  Raynham Hall

  • Oyster Bay Historical Society.  “The Revolution.”  In  Oyster Bay:  A Sketch, rev. and emended for the Oyster Bay Historical Society by Jane Soames Nickerson.  Oyster Bay, NY:  The Society, 1987:  pp. 127-149.  LI REF  974.7425  T-OYBAY  IRV
  • Fort Hill Townsend Burying Ground  (Find-a-Grave-com)


Parsons, Samuel Holden, 1737-1789

         See also  Setauket, Battle of, 1777



Period Speech


Port Jefferson, NY 

        See  De Lancey, Oliver, Sr.

               Drowned Meadow [later Port Jefferson], NY

               Marks, Nehemiah, 1746-1799


Privateering and Piracy

          See  Whaleboat Warfare  


Prisoners and Prisons, American


Queens American Rangers

        See also  Rogers, Robert

                       Simcoe, John Graves


Queens County, NY  [during the Revolution, included the 2, then 3 towns forming present day Nassau Co.]


Raynham Hall (Oyster Bay, NY)

          See also  Townsend, Sally

                         Townsend, Robert

                         Townsend, Samuel


Ridgefield, Battle of, 1777

      See  Danbury Raid

      See also  Arnold, Benedict

                     Tryon, William


Rivington, James, 1724-1802


Rocky Point, NY


Roe, Austin, 1739-1830


Roe, Nathaniel, 1737-1789 and Phillips Roe, b. 1729

        See also  Drowned Meadow [later Port Jefferson], NY


Rogers, Robert, 1731-1795

         See also    Hale, Nathan


                          Queens American Rangers

                          Simcoe, John Graves


Sackett, Nathaniel, 1737-1805


Sag Harbor, Battle of, 1777

          See also  Meigs, Return Jonathan, 1740-1823


Setauket, NY

       See also  Brewster, Caleb

                      Hewlett, Richard

                      Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring

                      Fort Setauket [fortified and desecrated Presbyterian Church]

                      Simcoe, John Graves

                      Tallmadge, Benjamin

                      Woodhull, Abraham 

  • Abrams, Arnold.  “Family Honors Patriot Spies.”  Newsday, July 4, 1988:  p. 6.  – “Tangier” Smith-Strong Family, of St. George’s Manor, Setauket
  • Adkins, Edwin P.  “The Middle Years.”  In  Setauket:  The First Three Hundred Years, 1655-1955,  325th Anniversary ed.  Setauket, NY:  Setauket-Brookhaven Tercentennary Committee; Three Village Historical Society, 1955, repr. 1980:  pp. 29-54.   Non-Fiction; LI REF; Circ. Storage 974.725  V-SETAKT ADK
  • Barstow, Belle. “Setauket and the Revolution.”  In Setauket’s Religious Beginnings, with Epitaphs from the Presbyterian Church. Smithtown, NY:  Rost Associates, Inc., 1984:  pp. 65-80.   LI REF  974.725  V-SETAKT  BAR
  •  A Brief History of the Caroline Church  (Caroline Church of Brookhaven)  -- Episcopalian
  • Hevesi, Dennis.  “America’s First CIA:  Couriers, Whaleboats and Anna Strong’s Laundry” (Long Island:  The Way It Was).  Newsday, [n.d.], 1976:  pp. 17-18, 20.
  • Setauket During the Revolution [video]. (Emma S. Clark Memorial Library; YouTube)


Setauket, Battle of, 1777

       See also    Fort Setauket

                        Setauket, NY

                        Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring


Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring

        See also  "Agent 355"

                       Andre, John (& Benedict Arnold)

                       Brewster, Caleb


                       Roe, Austin

                       Strong, Anna Smith

                       Townsend, Robert

                       Townsend, Sally

                       Woodhull, Abraham


Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806   

         See also   Queens American Rangers

                         Rogers, Robert


Shelter Island (NY : Town)


Skinners and Cowboys

        See   Neutral Ground


Smithtown (NY : Town)


        See also  Fort Golgotha


Southampton  (NY : Town)  -- then included what later become the Town of Riverhead


       See also  Good Ground, NY


Southold (NY : Town)


Stony Point, Battle of, 1779


Strong, Anna Smith, 1740-1812


         See also  Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring  


Strong, Selah, 1737-1815

        See also  Hewlett, Richard


Submarine (The American Turtle)


         See  Bushnell, David



Suffolk County, NY


Supply and Logistics

         See also  Prisoners and Prisons, American


Sympathetic Stain  (or "White ink")

        See also   Codes, Secret

                        Jay, Sir James

                        Setauket Spy Ring

                        Washington, George


Tallmadge, Benjamin, 1754-1835

          See also  Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring

                         Tallmadge Raid, 1780 


Tallmadge Raid, 1780   

       See also  Tallmadge, Benjamin


       Note:  While the usual emphasis is on the capture of Loyalist-held Fort St. George in Mastic, destruction of the hay forage at Coram, was the prime objective to George Washington.  Why?  Think horses, fodder: and resultant mobility of British armed forces, artillery, supplies and ammunition.


          See also  Wild Turkeys


Thompson, Benjamin, 1753-1814 [later Count Rumford, well-known as a scientist]

            See also  Fort Golgotha

                         Huntington (NY : Town)

                              Kings American Dragoons


Townsend, Robert, 1753-1838

          See also   Oyster Bay (NY : Town)

                          Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring


Townsend, Sarah (Sally), 1760-1842


          See also  Oyster Bay (NY : Town)

                         Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring


Townsend, Samuel, 1717-1790


         See also  Townsend, Robert

                        Townsend, Sarah (Sally)


Trumbull, Jonathan, 1710-1785  

        (last Royal Governor and first State Governor of Connecticut)


        See  Connecticut



Tryon, William, 1729-1788


        See also  Danbury Raid, 1777

                       New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk Raid, 1779




            [Season 1 of this televised series aired in 2014; Season 2 in 2015, Season 3, in 2016, and the final season  is scheduled to air, starting on April 25, 2017; prior seasons are available on DVD] -- This TV Series inspired this website, mainly for its fine acting, devoted following, and its sometimes hysterically blatant historical errors.


Turtle [submarine]

        See  Bushnell, David



Washington, George, 1732-1799  [later President of the Constitutional Convention, then of the U.S.]


         See also    Counterfeiting

                          Hickey, Thomas

                          Lee, William ("Billy")

                          Setauket Spy Ring

                          Washington, Henry


Washington, Henry, ca. 1740-ca.1801


Washington, Lawrence, 1718-1752  [George Washington's older brother]


Washington, Martha, 1731-1802


Washington Spy Trail


Westchester County, NY


Whaleboat Warfare [Privateering & Piracy]

          See also  Long Island Sound


Wild Turkeys

       See also  Thanksgiving



       See also  Agent 355

                      Arnold, Margaret (Peggy) Shippen

                      Strong, Anna Smith

                      Townsend, Sarah (Sally)

                      Washington, Martha


  • Naylor, Natalie A.  "The Revolutionary Schism and the Occupation of Long Island"  In  Women in Long Island's Past:  A History of Eminent Ladies and Everyday LivesCharleston; London:  The History Press, 2012:  pp. 33-42, 168-169.
  • Naylor, Natalie A.  Surviving the Ordeal:  Long Island Women During the Revolution [ms.]  Hempstead, NY:  Hofstra University.  Long Island Studies Institute, [n.d.]  


Woodhull, Abraham, 1750-1826

          See also  Setauket (Culper) Spy Ring


Wooster, David

         See  Danbury Raid, 1777


Compiled & edited by Mark Rothenberg, 

Local History Liaison, Patchogue-Medford Library

Senior Reference Specialist, Suffolk Cooperative Library System


(631) 654-4700, ext. 240